Category Archives: Automotive

Tips for Motorcycle Commuting

The great thing about motorcycle commuting is that you get to add at least two motorcycle rides to every work day, plus the bonus of occasional head-clearing rides during your lunch hour. But riding to and from work on two wheels is demanding. Riderstaffers commute every day and we deal with rush-hour traffic, gridlocked freeways, frenetic city streets and crowded parking lots, as well as occasional close calls, bouts of bad weather, flat tires, unexpectedly empty gas tanks and—mercifully rare—accidents.

1) Stick Out Like a Sore Thumb

Commuting is not the time to try and look cool in your black leather jacket and matte-black helmet, which makes you all but invisible to today’s distracted, smartphone-addicted drivers. The smart move is to make yourself as conspicuous as possible, and one of the best ways to do that is to wear hi-viz apparel.

2) Dress Like a Spaceman

Road warriors should never go into battle without their armor. Adhere to ATGATT (All The Gear, All The Time) and wear a full-face helmet, armored jacket and pants, gloves and boots. Or, instead of a jacket and pants, go with Aerostich’s Roadcrafter, which has been around for more than 30 years and is the go-to one-piece riding suit for many motorcycle commuters. You can zip in and out of a Roadcrafter in seconds, and it’s designed to be worn over regular clothes.

3) Flip Your Lid

Every motorcycle commuter should wear a full-coverage helmet that protects his or her entire head. For added convenience, consider a flip-up or modular helmet, such as the Shoei Neotec. A quick-release button allows you to raise the chinbar so you can talk to a gas station attendant, toll taker or friendly bystander without having to remove your helmet.

4) Be a Middleweight Champ

The best motorcycle to commute on is one you already own. But if you can choose among several motorcycles in your garage, or if you’re considering buying a bike to commute on, we recommend a contemporary machine with modern suspension, tires and ABS-equipped brakes.

5) Be a Hard Ass

As a motorcycle commuter, you’ll want to be able to easily transport stuff to and from work, such as your lunch, a laptop, a pair of work shoes (since you’ll be wearing motorcycle boots on the bike) or groceries you picked up on the way home. Hard-sided, lockable luggage is the way to go.

Motorcycle Gear

Here’s the info you need to make smart decisions, to be more comfortable, safer and, hopefully, save some money in the process. On a motorcycle, you’re going to be traveling much faster. Even around town you’ll be hitting 50 mph or more and, on the highway, you may find yourself exceeding 85 mph. Your skin, bones and organs were not designed to withstand impacts at those speeds.

Then there’s the question of abrasion. As a general rule of thumb, figuring the average road surface, you can expect to lose one millimeter of flesh for every mile per hour you’re going over 30 when you crash. No, we don’t know why the thumb mixed empirical and metric units. So, at the top speed of that horse, you’ll have lost 1.4cm (or more than half an inch) of skin and muscle.  Gear can even help when it’s hot, by better allowing your body’s natural evaporative cooling effect to take place. Under constant wind blast, the sweat is blown off your skin too quickly for it to have a cooling effect. Put on a (summer) jacket, helmet, boots, gloves and pants, however, and your body is free to cool itself as designed. Luckily, mankind has achieved through science what evolution has failed to provide: clothing that protects you from accidents and the elements, and makes riding an easier, more comfortable experience. Helmets typically have a five-year life. After that, the glue and whatnot used to bond layers of the EPS impact absorption material (precisely tailored densities of Styrofoam) may begin to degrade, impacting safety.

Like the crumple zone in a car, helmets are also designed to destroy themselves in a crash, thereby dissipating the energy that would otherwise be transferred to your head. Sometimes a helmet can experience a crash without external signs of damage but still sustain unseen effects. To ensure that your helmet is fully capable of protecting you, always buy a new helmet from a reputable retailer and treat it like a baby. Dirt helmets look like this. You wear them with goggles. Yes, they do protect your face, but that pronounced chin may exaggerate torsional forces in a crash. They’ll also be noisy and unstable at highway speeds. The shape and size of every person’s head is unique. You need to find a helmet that fits you perfectly; sizes and shapes vary heavily between manufacturers and models. To determine your shape and size, visit a large brick-and-mortar retailer and try on every helmet you can. You’ll know one fits when it evenly holds your head all the way around, with no pressure points. Put it on, grasp the chin and try to rotate the helmet while resisting the movement with your head. The helmet shouldn’t be able to rotate independently of your scalp. It should fit snugly, but not be too tight.

A jacket covers the other stuff on your body that’s fragile and important: arms, back, ribs, organs – all that fun stuff. You absolutely must choose a motorcycle-specific jacket for purposes of both safety and comfort. Fashion leather jackets and similar are not made to withstand either the windblast or crashes that real motorcycle jackets are built to deal with. Motorcycle jackets fall into two categories: leather and textile. High-quality textile materials like 1000 denier Cordura are able to resist abrasion as strongly as leather, while typically coming equipped with Gore-Tex or other water-resistant membranes capable of keeping you dry in bad weather. Leather helps you look the way you’d expect a classic “biker” to look, though, and jackets made from it typically last (a lot) longer and fit more closely to the body. Textile jackets are often more affordable.

Reasons Ride a Motorcycle

1. Riding A Motorcycle Makes You Cool

Generally, we like to hide this fact. But, in many ways, it’s at the heart of all other reasons: In some way or another motorcycling will make you cooler than everyone else. And deep in their hearts, everyone else will know it.

2. You’ll Find Your Zen

Part of being cool as a motorcyclist comes when you stop worrying about “embarrassing” things like helmet hair or walking into restaurants wearing base layers; you don’t get upset when it’s hot or cold or raining or windy. Ride regularly (and intelligently) for long enough and you’ll even be less enraged by other road users’ negligence. Because you know centering your anger on one person or thing only results in lost awareness.

3. Commuting is Easier and More Fun

It seems a lot of people suffer a mental block when it comes to honestly considering motorcycles as viable everyday transportation, but the fact is, they make a lot of sense. If you live in one of the majority of places in the world that allow lane splitting, riding a motorcycle means you will get to work sooner and with less frustration. If you don’t live in one of those places, you should be writing your representatives and throwing eggs at ABATE members in an effort to get things changed. But there’s still plenty of advantage to getting to work on two wheels.

4. Mother Earth Will Thank You

As a knock-on effect of fuel efficiency, motorcycles are a greener choice of transportation. Maybe not so much if you’re still thrashing around on a two-stroke, but any modern bike will have to meet increasingly strict environmental standards. If you’re lane splitting on the way to work, you’re also decreasing your environmental impact by not sitting at idle for long stretches. If your engine is running for less time, it spends less time putting crap in the air.

5. You’re Less of a Drain on the System

Along with putting fewer pollutants into the air they breathe, you’re helping out your fellow citizens by placing less stress on the roads their taxes pay for. Because you and the bike weigh less than someone else and a car, you’re causing less strain. That means the road lasts longer, and that also means the need for repair is less frequent.

6. A Motorcycle Can’t be Hacked 

One of the more terrifying Skynet-like things to happen last year was hackers remotely controlling a Jeep Cherokee. Last I checked, this sort of thing isn’t yet—yet—possible with a motorcycle. Though, considering Ducati (and most electric bikes) offer the ability to make adjustments via smartphone, it probably won’t be long. If you’re truly concerned about the machines taking over though, a motorcycle remains a good bet. Especially if you choose a Royal-Enfield or Ural.

7. More Humans Are Involved

Related to the above, it’s generally the case that far more human hands will have been involved in the making of your motorcycle than in the average car. This is especially true if you buy boutique motorcycles, like the Ariel Ace, and obviously with any custom. But even with major manufacturers like Honda, people play an important role, performing tricky tasks a robot simply can’t manage.

8. Your Health Will Improve

When motorcycle proponents are scraping the barrel they drag out the claim that motorcycles help you lose weight. Ostensibly this is true: A 180-pound man will burn 40 more calories in an hour riding a motorcycle than he will driving a car. If he sings the whole time he’ll scorch an additional 100 calories. But take a gander at those attending Sturgis or Daytona rallies and it’s clear riding a bike isn’t a miracle weight-loss technique.

9. You Meet the Nicest People

Using terms like “brotherhood” or “sisterhood” in applying the connection between motorcyclists quickly sends one down the rabbit hole of self-aggrandizing BS. The idea of there being a special bond between the purchasers of a mass-produced item is silly. I am no more spiritually linked to other motorcyclists than I am other consumers of Kraft macaroni and cheese. And yet, and yet… there is something.

10. Because Freedom

On a motorcycle, it’s just your little head inside that helmet. You are in control of you, totally and completely. You feel the immediacy of your actions and decisions. The zen state pushes away anxiety about deadlines and bills to pay, and whether that girl at Starbucks was flirting when she told you to have a nice day. It’s not selfishness, but simply the realization of the fullness of yourself. On a bike you feel like a complete human being, not an insignificant part of something else. And with this knowledge you’ll find your interactions with your partner, kids, family, job, ambitions and so on, will improve.


A machine is a tool containing one or more parts that transforms energy. Machines are usually powered by chemical, thermal, or electrical means, and are often motorized. Historically, a power tool also required moving parts to classify as a machine. However, the advent of electronics has led to the development of power tools without moving parts that are considered machines. A simple machine is a device that simply transforms the direction or magnitude of a force, but a large number of more complex machines exist. Examples include vehicles, electronic systems, molecular machines, computers, television, and radio.

Perhaps the first example of a human made device designed to manage power is the hand axe, made by chipping flint to form a wedge. A wedge is a simple machine that transforms lateral force and movement of the tool into a transverse splitting force and movement of the workpiece. The idea of a simple machine originated with the Greek philosopher Archimedes around the 3rd century BC, who studied the Archimedean simple machines: lever, pulley, and screw. He discovered the principle of mechanical advantage in the lever. Later Greek philosophers defined the classic five simple machines (excluding the inclined plane) and were able to roughly calculate their mechanical advantage. Heron of Alexandria (ca. 10–75 AD) in his work Mechanics lists five mechanisms that can “set a load in motion”; lever, windlass, pulley, wedge, and screw, and describes their fabrication and uses. However the Greeks’ understanding was limited to statics (the balance of forces) and did not include dynamics (the tradeoff between force and distance) or the concept of work.

During the Renaissance the dynamics of the Mechanical Powers, as the simple machines were called, began to be studied from the standpoint of how much useful work they could perform, leading eventually to the new concept of mechanical work. In 1586 Flemish engineer Simon Stevin derived the mechanical advantage of the inclined plane, and it was included with the other simple machines. The complete dynamic theory of simple machines was worked out by Italian scientist Galileo Galilei in 1600 in Le Meccaniche (“On Mechanics”). He was the first to understand that simple machines do not create energy, they merely transform it. The classic rules of sliding friction in machines were discovered by Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519), but remained unpublished in his notebooks. They were rediscovered by Guillaume Amontons (1699) and were further developed by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (1785).

Machines are assembled from standardized types of components. These elements consist of mechanisms that control movement in various ways such as gear trains, transistorswitches, belt or chain drives, linkages, cam and follower systems, brakes and clutches, and structural components such as frame members and fasteners. Modern machines include sensors, actuators and computer controllers. The shape, texture and color of covers provide a styling and operational interface between the mechanical components of a machine and its users.

Car Colour Popularity

The most popular car colours today are shades of grey: white, black, grey and silver, amounting to over 70% of the total world car production. Red, blue and brown/beige cars range between 6% and 9% each, while all other colours amount to less than 5%. Colour choice is subject to fluctuation and fashion, and historical trends shifted from dark neutral colours of early cars, through more vivid colours of 1950s and 1960s, back towards today’s neutral colours.

A 2013 poll for Forbes by discovered gender differences in preferred car colours. Slightly more men than women preferred red, while slightly more women than men favoured silver. This small but statistically real gender difference, rather than reflecting actual gendered colour preferences, instead appears to be the result of existing gender-based preferences for particular types of car, which are likewise associated with different colours. Each vehicle category, from electric cars to gigantic SUVs, exhibits a general “personality,” which tends to inspire different levels of interest for men and women.

The car colours silver, white, grey, black, gold, beige, and several shades of brown, while each having experienced the intermittent prominence typical of non-neutrals, are likewise subject to fashion’s more general fluctuations. However, perennial popularity for neutrals is assured based simply on their inherent plainness. Neutral colours are popular on cars for many reasons. The vast majority of drivers expect to get years of use from one car, and so take care in choosing its colour (among its many other attributes). Conventional wisdom has long considered neutral colours to be more tasteful, timeless, flattering, and fool-proof than bright colours; this wisdom also maintains that a neutral colour can be acceptably paired with any other conceivable colour. While many people disregard much of this advice when it comes to clothing, they are more likely to follow it where important purchases are concerned, as it is much easier and less expensive to change an unfortunate shirt than it is to have a car repainted a tolerable colour. Furthermore, unlike “faddish” colours, neutral colours do not run the risk of falling out of style. Lastly, some drivers, observing conventional beliefs about colours, choose neutral coloured cars because they fear that a non-neutral car could “clash” unpleasantly against their house, with other cars, with particular outfits while driving, or even with the particular driver’s skin tone.

Perhaps popularity itself helps propel certain colours’ continued ubiquity. Dominant car colours tend to remain dominant, as most new cars are bought straight from the car lot, where dealers preferentially stock the colours that sell so reliably. Rental car companies also prefer neutral coloured cars and stock their fleets accordingly, likely reasoning that their customers will approve of, or at least be able to ignore, neutral colours. Chris Webb, the exterior colour and trend designer for GM North America, suggests that silver is the most popular colour for the simple reason that relatively more light reflects off it, hiding dirt and attractively accentuating the architectural design. Cars that are silver retain their value better than any other colour, reselling for around 10% more than white cars; this superior resale value has caused many UK police agencies to replace their standard white patrol cars with silver models. However, these patrol cars could outlast the value of their paint colour, as there is some evidence that the colour’s popularity is decreasing.

A common belief is that red cars cost more to insure; in fact, insurers do not take colour into account. It is probably not coincidental that the top three male-preferred colours (red, orange and black, each with similar percentages) are all highly desirable colours for sports cars, cars which find more favour among men than women. Sports cars, in the popular imagination, are strongly associated with fun times and gorgeous women. For men who find this image alluring, red’s “sexy” connotations and high visibility, in addition to its status as the “traditional” colour for sports cars, add considerably to the vehicle’s flashiness and appeal. The top three colours preferred by more women than men were (the ever-popular) silver, followed by brown and gold; and the degree of gender disparity for all three was somewhat lower than for the above-mentioned male preferences. Silver, brown, and gold are all very popular colours for minivans and SUVs; which in the United States are both commonly associated with parenting. Because childcare burdens still fall more heavily on mothers than on fathers, it makes sense that women would be the ones shopping for an appropriate child-transporting vehicle, expecting to be its primary (if not exclusive) driver after purchase. A mother with several kids to drive around would not be tempted to buy a two-seater convertible for that purpose.

In summation, the poll showed that women favoured practical family-oriented cars in colours that would appear dignified and not stand out; whereas men wanted showier cars whose bright colours sought to attract specific kinds of attention. The article does not say whether there was a gender difference in who actually bought cars as opposed to just browsing and giving opinions.

World Car

The phrase world car is an engineering strategy used to describe an automobile designed to suit the needs of global automotive markets with minimal changes in each market it is sold in. The goal of a world car program is to save costs and increase quality by standardizing parts and design for a single vehicle in a certain class, in hopes of using the cost savings to deliver a higher-quality product that appeals to automotive consumers worldwide. Examples include the Ford Mondeo and Focus, modern no-frills cars such as the Fiat Palio, Dacia Logan and VW Fox along with luxury cars such as the BMW 3-Series and Lexus LS.

In the pioneering days of the automotive industry, automobiles were primarily designed for the local market that the manufacturer was based in, such as the Ford Model T, which was engineered to cope with the rural lifestyle and rugged terrain that most automobile buyers in the United States had to contend with in the early days of the automobile. However, the Model T was arguably the first world car, with knock-down kits being assembled in locations such as Canada, England and Argentina.

In particular, Ford Motor Company and its American compatriot, General Motors were focused on expanding globally, with General Motors either acquiring or partnering with local automobile manufacturers, such as Opel of Germany, Vauxhall of England and Holden of Australia, while Ford created overseas subsidiaries that would later develop their own line of bespoke automobiles independently of their American parent, such as Ford of Germany, Ford of Britain and Ford Australia.

In 1933, Ford introduced their first car designed for European tastes that was not sold in the United States, the Ford Model Y, developed by Ford of Britain, and also manufactured by Ford of Germany as the Ford Köln. One response was the Opel 1.2 litre, developed by General Motors in the United States but built and sold in Europe. In Australia, the Coupé utilitywas beginning to catch on in popularity, as “a vehicle to go to church in on a Sunday and which can carry our pigs to market on Mondays.” Despite being a global design initially, world cars have to have specific changes made per national laws/regulations, or cultural differences / market tastes where these are divergent. For example, fuel prices vary greatly in different countries, and this affects the choice of engine fitted.

One vehicle that is an example of this is the Volkswagen Golf (currently sold in the Mk VI version), offered only with a 2.5-litre 5-cylinder petrol in the United States and Canada, but in Europe, it has 1.4, 1.4 TSI turbo, 1.6, 2.0, 2.0 turbo 4-cylinder and 3.2 V6 petrol and 1.9 SDI diesel and 2.0 TDI turbodiesel engines. The differences between market needs are not just reflected by equipment levels (in Europe the Golf offers multiple trim levels, compared to North America where it is only available in two versions, and sold as a premiumhatchback rather than a workaday family car as in Europe.

The World Car Awards (WCOTY)  is an automobile award selected by a jury of 48 international automotive journalists from 22 countries. Cars considered must be sold in at least five countries, on at least two continents prior to 1 January of the year of the award. The contest was inaugurated in 2003, and officially launched in January 2004. This was as a unified award, similar to many of the continent, and nation-specific Car of the Year awards already given. Since 2006, awards for performance, green cars, and car design have also been given. In 2013, an award for luxury design was inaugurated.

Car Finance

The subject of car finance comprises the different financial products which allows someone to acquire a car with any arrangement other than a single lump payment. The provision of car finance by a third party supplier allows the acquirer to provide for and raise the funds to compensate the initial owner, either a dealer or manufacturer. Car finance is required by both private individuals and businesses. All types of finance products are available to either sector, however the market share by finance type for each sector differs, partly because business contract hire can provide tax and cashflow benefits to businesses.

Personal Car Finance is a complete subsector of personal finance, with numerous different products available. These include a straightforward car loan, hire purchase, personal contract hire (car leasing) and personal contract purchase. Therefore, car finance includes but is not limited to vehicle leasing. These different types of car finance are possible because of the high residual value of cars and the second hand car market, which enables other forms of financing beyond pure unsecured loans. Car finance arose because the price of cars was out of the reach of individual purchasers without borrowing the money. The funding for personal car finance is provided either by a retail bank or a specialist car financing company. Some car manufacturers own their own car financing arms, such as Ford with the Ford Motor Credit Company and General Motors with its GMAC Financial Services arm, which has now been renamed and rebranded as Ally Financial. Indirect auto lenders may set risk-based interest rate, or “buy rate,” that it conveys to auto dealers. Car companies may then allow their auto dealers to charge a higher interest rate when they finalize the deal with the consumer. This is typically called “dealer markup.” Markups can generate compensation for dealers and some (those of GM’s Ally and Honda) have been found to use the discretion to charge consumers different rates regardless of consumer creditworthiness.

Personal finance is the financial management which an individual or a family unit performs to budget, save, and spend monetary resources over time, taking into account various financial risks and future life events. When planning personal finances, the individual would consider the suitability to his or her needs of a range of banking products (checking, savings accounts, credit cards and consumer loans) or investment private equity, (stock market, bonds, mutual funds) and insurance (life insurance, health insurance, disability insurance) products or participation and monitoring of and- or employer-sponsored retirement plans, social security benefits, and income tax management.

Personal circumstances differ considerably, with respect to patterns of income, wealth, and consumption needs. Tax and finance laws also differ from country to country, and market conditions vary geographically and over time. This means that advice appropriate for one person might not be appropriate for another. A financial advisor can offer personalized advice in complicated situations and for high-wealth individuals, but University of Chicago professor Harold Pollack and personal finance writer Helaine Olen argue that in the United States good personal finance advice boils down to a few simple points:[9]

  • Pay off your credit card balance every month, in full
  • Save 20% of your income
  • Maximize contributions to tax-advantaged funds such as a 401(k) retirement funds, individual retirement accounts, and 529 eduction savings plans
  • When investing savings:
    • Don’t attempt to trade individual securities
    • Avoid high-fee and actively managed funds
    • Look for low-cost, highly diversified mutual funds that balance risk vs. reward appropriately to your target retirement year
  • If using a financial advisor, require them to commit to a fiduciary duty to act in your best interest
  • Advocate for government social insurance programs

The funding supplier may retain ownership of the car during the period of the contract for certain types of financing, such as a hire purchas or personal contract purchase. This interim ownership by a third party and subsequent leasing to the acquirer is far more typical for business assets than private ones, with the option of vehicle leasing being the major exception for private consumers. The finance is arranged either by the dealer which provides the car or by independent finance brokers who work on commission.

Automotive Industry

The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers. The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world’s most important economic sectors by revenue. It is one of the world’s most important economic sectors by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations. The term automotive was created from Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by Elmer Sperry.  The automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage.  For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production.  In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world’s auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and became world’s leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production  and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 (140 models) over 1998 (260 models) to 2012 (684 models), the number of automobile models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.

The Japanese automotive industry is one of the most prominent and largest industries in the world. Japan has been in the top three of the countries with most cars manufactured since the 1960s, surpassing Germany. The automotive industry in Japan rapidly increased from the 1970s to the 1990s (when it was oriented both for domestic use and worldwide export) and in the 1980s and 1990s, overtook the U.S. as the production leader with up to 13 million cars per year manufactured and significant exports. After massive ramp-up by China in the 2000s and fluctuating U.S. output, Japan is now currently the third largest automotive producer in the world with an annual production of 9.9 million automobiles in 2012. Japanese investments helped grow the auto industry in many countries throughout the last few decades. Japanese zaibatsu (business conglomerates) began building their first automobiles in the middle to late 1910s. The companies went about this by either designing their own trucks (the market for passenger vehicles in Japan at the time was small), or partnering with a European brand to produce and sell their cars in Japan under license. Such examples of this are Isuzu partnering with Wolseley Motors (UK), Nissan partnering with British automaker Austin, and the Mitsubishi Model A, which was based upon the Fiat Tipo 3. The demand for domestic trucks was greatly increased by the Japanese military buildup before World War II, causing many Japanese manufacturers to break out of their shells and design their own vehicles. In the 1970s Japan was the pioneer in robotics manufacturing of vehicles.

The country is home to a number of companies that produce cars, construction vehicles, motorcycles, ATVs, and engines. Japanese automotive manufacturers include Toyota, Honda, Daihatsu, Nissan, Suzuki, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Subaru, Isuzu, Kawasaki, Yamaha, and Mitsuoka. Cars designed in Japan have won the European Car of the Year, International Car of the Year, and World Car of the Year awards many times. Japanese vehicles have had worldwide influence, and no longer have the stigma they had in the 1950s and 1960s when they first emerged internationally.

Flight Dynamics

Flight dynamics is the study of the performance, stability, and control of vehicles flying through the air or in outer space. It is concerned with how forces acting on the vehicle influence its speed and attitude with respect to time. In fixed-wing aircraft, the changing orientation of the vehicle with respect to the local air flow is represented by two critical parameters, angle of attack (“alpha”) and angle of sideslip (“beta”). These angles describe the vector direction of airspeed, important because they are the principal source of modulations in the aerodynamic forces and moments applied to the aircraft.

Spacecraft flight dynamics involve three forces: propulsive (rocket engine), gravitational, and lift and drag (when traveling through the earth’s or any other atmosphere). Because aerodynamic forces involved with spacecraft flight are very small, this leaves gravity as the dominant force. Aircraft and spacecraft share a critical interest in their orientation with respect to the earth horizon and heading, and this is represented by another set of angles, “yaw”, “pitch”, and “roll”, which angles match their colloquial meaning, but also have formal definition as an Euler sequence. These angles are the product of the rotational equations of motion, where orientation responds to torque, just as the velocity of a vehicle responds to forces. For all flight vehicles, these two sets of dynamics, rotational and translational, operate simultaneously and in a coupled fashion to evolve the vehicle’s state (orientation and velocity) trajectory.

Three right-handed, Cartesian coordinate systems see frequent use in flight dynamics. The first coordinate system has an origin fixed in the reference frame of the Earth:

  • Earth frame
    • Origin – arbitrary, fixed relative to the surface of the Earth
    • xE axis – positive in the direction of north
    • yE axis – positive in the direction of east
    • zE axis – positive towards the center of the Earth

In many flight dynamics applications, the Earth frame is assumed to be inertial with a flat xE,yE-plane, though the Earth frame can also be considered a spherical coordinate systemwith origin at the center of the Earth.

The other two reference frames are body-fixed, with origins moving along with the aircraft, typically at the center of gravity. For an aircraft that is symmetric from right-to-left, the frames can be defined as:

  • Body frame
    • Origin – airplane center of gravity
    • xb axis – positive out the nose of the aircraft in the plane of symmetry of the aircraft
    • zb axis – perpendicular to the xb axis, in the plane of symmetry of the aircraft, positive below the aircraft
    • yb axis – perpendicular to the xb,zb-plane, positive determined by the right-hand rule (generally, positive out the right wing)
  • Wind frame
    • Origin – airplane center of gravity
    • xw axis – positive in the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft relative to the air
    • zw axis – perpendicular to the xw axis, in the plane of symmetry of the aircraft, positive below the aircraft
    • yw axis – perpendicular to the xw,zw-plane, positive determined by the right hand rule (generally, positive to the right)

Asymmetric aircraft have analogous body-fixed frames, but different conventions must be used to choose the precise directions of the x and z axes.

The Earth frame is a convenient frame to express aircraft translational and rotational kinematics. The Earth frame is also useful in that, under certain assumptions, it can be approximated as inertial. Additionally, one force acting on the aircraft, weight, is fixed in the +zE direction.

The body frame is often of interest because the origin and the axes remain fixed relative to the aircraft. This means that the relative orientation of the Earth and body frames describes the aircraft attitude. Also, the direction of the force of thrust is generally fixed in the body frame, though some aircraft can vary this direction, for example by thrust vectoring.

Analysis of Disc Brake Rotors

disc brake is a type of brake that uses calipers to squeeze pairs of pads against a rotor in order to create friction that retards the rotation of a shaft, such as a vehicle axle, either to reduce its rotational speed or to hold it stationary. The energy of motion is converted into waste heat which must be dispersed. Hydraulic disc brakes are the most commonly used form of brake for motor vehicles but the principles of a disc brake are applicable to almost any rotating shaft. Compared to drum brakes, disc brakes offer better stopping performance because the disc is more readily cooled. As a consequence discs are less prone to the brake fade caused when brake components overheat. Disc brakes also recover more quickly from immersion. Most drum brake designs have at least one leading shoe, which gives a servo-effect. By contrast, a disc brake has no self-servo effect and its braking force is always proportional to the pressure placed on the brake pad by the braking system via any brake servo, braking pedal, or lever. This tends to give the driver better “feel” and helps to avoid impending lockup. Drums are also prone to “bell mouthing” and trap worn lining material within the assembly, both causes of various braking problems.

The rotor is usually made of cast iron, but may in some cases be made of composites such as reinforced carbon–carbon or ceramic matrix composites. Brakes are mechanical or sometimes electrical devices or components that help to decelerate the vehicle and eventually stop the vehicle in a certain time and certain distance called the stopping distance or the braking distance. The automotive brake is basically a mechanical device which inhibits motion, slowing or stopping a moving object, here, the automobile, and thereby preventing its motion. Brakes are one of the most significant safety systems in any automobile. Functioning of brakes is based on the conservation of energy. Most commonly used brakes are frictional brakes, where the friction produced between two objects convert the kinetic energy of the moving vehicle into heat energy.

Theory of brakes

Frictional brakes: Friction brakes are the most commonly employed braking system in commercial or special purpose vehicles. They generally are rotating devices with a rotating wear surface like Disc or drum and a stationary pad or a shoe. Here, the kinetic energy of the moving vehicle is utilized to stop the vehicle by conversion of this kinetic energy into heat energy/frictional energy. A few common configurations of this type of braking are disc brakes, drum brakes and hydrodynamic brakes.

Disc brakes: Shoes or pads contract and provide compressive frictional force on the outer surface of a rotating Disc. It is a circular metal Disc on which the pads are mounted. Usually it is made up of cast iron material. The design of Disc brakes is varied depending on the application, amount of exposure, thermal properties of the material and the amount of heat dissipation required when brakes are applied and the total mass to be stopped.

This project report will contain the design of a Disc brake rotor, and analyze results of Structural and Thermal Analysis at a later stage.

Drum brakes: Shoes or lining expand and rub against the inside surface of a rotating drum. Drum is again made up of cast iron material and mounted in the wheel hub in such a manner that the liner pads attach themselves to the inner surface of the drum and during the braking process, the shoe or brake lining expand or move outwards, due to the cam and spring action, to attach themselves to the brake drum which provides friction and causes the drum to retard or stop its rotating motion. Drums are usually heavier than Disc brakes and occupy significantly more space due the lining and drum it and hence its application in commercial vehicles is somewhat restricted.

The purpose of this research is to analyze different types of disc brake rotors, which are commonly used in automobile industry and to propose a new design of brake rotor. Analysis of brake rotor includes Structural analysis and Steady state Thermal analysis for each design. A comparison between the existing brake rotors and proposed new design is carried out and based on the results the best design is found out by ANSYS software.